Die koper gaan ‘n verkoopsooreenkoms met die verkoper aan. Die eiendom word in die koper se naam oorgedra. ‘n Maand later was daar swaar reënval en die dak lek. Is die verkoper aanspreeklik vir die herstel van die dak, of neem die koper, as die nuwe eienaar, verantwoordelikheid daarvoor?
Om te verstaan watter party aanspreeklik is, moet ‘n mens die verskil tussen verborge en sigbare defekte begryp. Verborge defekte is nie sigbaar nie of kan ontdek word wanneer die eiendom ondersoek word. Hierdie tipe skade benadeel die gebruik en genot van die eiendom. Tipiese voorbeelde van verborge defekte is lekkende dakke, vog en/of strukturele defekte in die fondasie, om net ‘n paar te noem.
Aan die ander kant, verwys ‘n sigbare defek na skade wat geredelik aan die lig gebring word wanneer die eiendom geïnspekteer word. Gevolglik kan die partye die opsies bespreek ten opsigte van wie na die herstelwerk sal omsien. Dieselfde kan tussen die partye onderhandel word, of dit nou die verkoper is wat die sigbare defek herstel of die koopprys vir die koper verminder om die skade te laat herstel.
Dit is dus die verborge defek-aangeleentheid wat aanleiding gee tot die dispuut tussen die partye indien dit sou ontstaan. Die gemeenregtelike posisie is soos volg:
- Indien die verkoper aan die koper ‘n uitdruklike skriftelike waarborg gee dat die eiendom vry van enige defekte verkoop word, en nadat die verkoopsooreenkoms afgehandel is, die koper bevestig dat daar ‘n defek is, kan die verkoper aanspreeklik gehou word vir die herstelwerk. Indien die verkoper byvoorbeeld in die verkoopsooreenkoms verklaar het dat die dak nié lek nie en die koper na die sluiting van die ooreenkoms lekkasies in die dak ervaar, word die verkoper aanspreeklik gehou aangesien ‘n kontrakbreuk gepleeg is.
- Indien die verkoper wanvoorstellings aan die koper gee aangaande die eiendom se toestand, kan die verkoper aanspreeklik gehou word. Byvoorbeeld, indien die verkoper bewus is daarvan dat die dak lek en nie dit aan die koper verklaar nie, kan die verkoper aanspreeklik gehou word, en die verkoopsooreenkoms kan ter syde gestel word, of die koper kan voortgaan en die prys verminder om op te maak vir die skade.
‘n Mens kan wel vra: wat as die verkoper nie geweet het van die verborge defek nie? Die antwoord is ja, die verkoper kan aanspreeklik gehou word indien die defek reeds bestaan het toe die verkoopsooreenkoms tussen die partye gesluit het.
Maar hoekom is daar ‘n voetstootsklousule in die verkoopsooreenkoms, wat veronderstel is om die verkoper te beskerm deur die koper in te lig dat hy/sy/hulle die eiendom nes dit is (voetstoots) koop? Die voetstootsklousule beskerm nie die verkoper nie en sluit nie die verkoper se aanspreeklikheid uit indien die wanvoorstelling bewys word nie; dus, indien die verkoper bewus was van die verborge gebrek en dit nie aan die koper bekend gemaak het nie, kan die verkoper aanspreeklik gehou word.
Die Wet op Verbruikersbeskerming, wat op 1 April 2011 in werking getree het, bepaal dat die koper in kennis gestel moet word van alle besonderhede rakende die eiendom wat hy/sy/hulle koop. Sodra die verkoper uitdruklik sê in watter toestand die eiendom is en die koper die huidige toestand van die eiendom uitdruklik aanvaar voordat die eiendom gekoop word, verval die stilswyende waarborg van die eiendom se toestand. Die effek van die WVB was dat die voetstootsklousule min doen om die verkoper te beskerm wanneer dit by skade kom; daarom word die verkoper versoek om alle skade aan die eiendom aan die koper te verklaar voordat ‘n verkoopsooreenkoms aangegaan word.
- PRACTITIONERS GUIDE CONVEYANCING & NOTARIAL PRACTICE BY ALLEN WEST
- WET OP VERBRUIKERSBESKERMING 68 VAN 2008
Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.
Attorney | LLB | NQF 7
Harmann graduated in 2018 with an LLB degree from the North-West University’s Potchefstroom Campus. He went on to study and grow in various fields, including doing a course on the Consumer Protection Act and a course at the University of South Africa where he obtained his NQF 7 Certificate in the Administration of Deceased Estates.
Harmann completed his articles of clerkship at Swemmer & Levin under the supervision of Mr Richard Phillips. After being admitted as an attorney in 2020, Harmann continued with Swemmer & Levin as a professional assistant in the deceased estates department as well as the litigation department. He loves to study, possesses a deep curiosity about the world, and is dedicated to giving back to the community.
Andre van der Walt
Attorney | LLB | NQF 7
Andre graduated in 2015 with an LLB degree from the University of Pretoria. He later went on to obtain his NQF 7 Certificate in the Administration of Deceased Estates from the University of South Africa, which allowed him to further his career in deceased estates and the drafting of wills and trusts. Andre served his articles at Barnard & Patel Attorneys under the supervision of Mr YAS Patel. After being admitted as an attorney in 2016, he continued working at Barnard & Patel Attorneys as a professional assistant in the deceased estates department.
Andre joined Van Rensburg Attorneys in 2019 and was head of the deceased estates department until 2021. He then received the opportunity to move to the West Coast, where he joined Swemmer & Levin Attorneys. Andre loves travelling and enjoys the beauty that our country has to offer with his friends, family, and loved ones.
Director | Attorney | LLB
Jandré grew up and matriculated in the small Klein Karoo town of Oudtshoorn. He furthered his studies at the North-West University in Potchefstroom, obtaining his LLB degree during 2015. He completed his articles at Swemmer & Levin in 2017 and was subsequently appointed as a professional assistant. In 2020, Jandré was promoted to the position of director at the firm, where he practises in the Litigation department at our Langebaan office. When not practising law, Jandré is an avid sports fan. He has a passion for nature and enjoys camping, trail running, and mountain biking with his family.
Director | Attorney | Bcom & BProc
After matriculating at Paarl Boys’ High School, Richard completed his BCom and BProc degrees at the University of Port Elizabeth. He served his articles with Van Wyk Fouchee in Paarl and quickly developed an affinity for litigation. Richard has always had a deep love for the ocean and when he was presented with an opportunity to join Swemmer & Levin on the West Coast, he agreed without hesitation and has been with our firm since 1997. Richard specialises in general litigation and divorces. When he is not in the office or with his family, he tries to spend as much time as possible in or on the water.
Director | Attorney | BA. LLB
Johann matriculated at Oudtshoorn High School and attended Stellenbosch University, where he obtained his BA Law and LLB degrees. Following his studies, he worked for three years as State Prosecutor at the Magistrate’s Court in Cape Town. Johann completed his legal training with the State Attorney in Pretoria and then moved to his hometown, Oudtshoorn, where he worked as a lawyer for a year. In 1983, he finally moved to Vredenburg and joined Swemmer & Levin, where he is still practising as a director. When he is not in the office, Johann enjoys cycling and in his earlier days, he used to be a long-distance junkie.
Director | Attorney & Conveyancer | BA. LLB
Pieter obtained his BA Law degree from Stellenbosch University in 1995 and his LLB degree from the North-West University in Potchefstroom in 1998. He served his articles at Marais Muller Attorneys from 1998 to 1999 and was admitted as an attorney in 2000 and as a conveyancer in 2002. Pieter is the founder of PP Smit Attorneys, which opened its doors in 2004. He also became a director of Swemmer & Levin in 2006. Pieter loves the outdoors and participating in all forms of sport, including tennis, golf, fishing, spearfishing, scuba diving, and hiking. He also holds an LSA Pilot’s Licence and is a proud member of the Saldanha Flying Club.
Director | Attorney, Notary & Conveyancer | BA. LLB
Jan graduated in 1974 with a five-year BA LLB degree from the University of Stellenbosch, whereafter he was admitted as an advocate and prosecuted as such in the Cape Town and Wynberg Courts. In 1974, he joined Swemmer & Levin as the Candidate Attorney of Mr Levin (founding member) and was admitted as an attorney on 7 April 1976, as a conveyancer on 11 January 1978, and as a Notary on 19 December 1984. Since 1974, he has served in various committees, including the West Coast Chamber of Commerce, the Vredenburg School Committee, and the Malgas Lions Club.
Furthermore, Jan was the author of the first bilingual law book, The New Debt Collecting Procedures (Die Nuwe Skuldinvorderingsprosedures), which was used by all the Magistrate Courts throughout South Africa. With the founding of the Small Claims Court in Vredenburg, Jan served as one of the first Commissioners. He is currently based at Swemmer & Levin’s Vredenburg office and has been with our firm for more than 47 years.
Attorney & Notary | LLB
Carien grew up and matriculated in the picturesque town of Ceres, whereafter she furthered her studies at the University of Stellenbosch and obtained her LLB degree in 2015. She completed her articles at VanderSpuy Cape Town in 2017 and stayed on as an associate litigant after being admitted as an attorney during early 2018. Carien loves the countryside and thus ventured back to Ceres where she joined Joubert Van Vuuren Inc. for a year. However, when she was presented with the opportunity to enjoy both the country- and the seaside, she couldn’t resist and joined Swemmer & Levin at the beginning of 2022 as an avid litigator. When she is not at the office, Carien enjoys long walks, wine tasting, and exploring the area with her family and friends.